|There were "old" features in your gua (hexagram). It means that you have two hexagrams. The first one — is something that the Book tells you at the moment, the second is something it warns you about.
20. Viewing (guān). Contemplation
You may work day and night long, but no fruit can be grown without spiritual work.
Inital text of I Ching
Contemplation. The ablution has been made, but not yet the offering. Full of trust they look up to him.
The wind blows over the earth:
The image of Contemplation. Thus the kings of old visited the regions of the world, contemplated the people, and gave them instruction.
- Boylike contemplation. For an inferior man, no blame. For a superior man, humiliation.
- Contemplation through the crack of the door. Furthering for the perseverance of a woman.
- Contemplation of my life decides the choice between advance and retreat.
- Contemplation of the light of the kingdom. It furthers one to exert influence as the guest of a king.
- Contemplation of my life. The superior man is without blame.
- Contemplation of his life. The superior man is without blame.
It is time of external harmony. Much has been achieved. It is time to step back and look at its movement through the eyes of a stranger - you need objectivity. Do not seek to cover all with common eye - gradually learn about the essentials, learn the essence. Most of all, concentration and inner truth are needed. Self-deception is dangerous! It is time of active inner work, evolving, soul-searching.
A slight variation of tonal stress gives the Chinese name for this hexagram a
double meaning. It means both contemplating and being seen, in the sense
of being an example. These ideas are suggested by the fact that the hexagram
can be understood as picturing a type of tower characteristic of ancient China.
A tower of this kind commanded a wide view of the country; at the same
time, when situated on a mountain, it became a landmark that could be seen
for miles around. Thus the hexagram shows a ruler who contemplates the
law of heaven above him and the ways of the people below, and who, by
means of good government, sets a lofty example to the masses.
This hexagram is linked with the eight month (September-October). The
light-giving power retreats and the dark power is again on the increase.
However, this aspect is not material in the interpretation of the hexagram as a
The sacrificial ritual in China began with an ablution and a libation by which
the Deity was invoked, after which the sacrifice was offered. The moment of
time between these two ceremonies is the most sacred of all, the moment of
deepest inner concentration. If piety is sincere and expressive of real faith, the
contemplation of it has a transforming awe-spiring effect on those who
Thus also in nature a holy seriousness is to be seen in the fact that natural
occurrences are uniformly subject to law. Contemplation of the divine
meaning underlying the workings of the universe gives to the man who is
called upon to influence others the means of producing like effects. This
requires that power of inner concentration which religious contemplation
develops in great men strong in faith. It enables them to apprehend the
mysterious and divine laws of life, and by means of profoundest inner
concentration they give expression to these laws in their own persons. Thus
a hidden spiritual power emanates from them, influencing and dominating
others without their being aware of how it happens.
When the wind blows over the earth it goes far and wide, and the grass must
bend to its power. These two occurrences find confirmation in the hexagram.
The two images are used to symbolize a practice of the kings of old; in making
regular journeys the ruler could, in the first place, survey his realm and make
certain that none of the existing usages of the people escaped notice; in the
second, he could exert influence through which such customs as were
unsuitable could be changed.
All of this points to the power possessed by a superior personality. On the
one hand, such a man will have a view of the real sentiments of the great
mass of humanity and therefore cannot be deceived; on the other, he will
impress the people so profoundly, by his mere existence and by the impact of
his personality, that they will be swayed by him as the grass by the wind.
This means contemplation from a distance, without comprehension. A man
of influence is at hand, abut his influence is not understood by the common
people. This matters little in the case of the masses, for they benefit by the
actions of the ruling sage whether they understand them or not. But for a
superior man it is a disgrace. He must not content himself with a shallow,
thoughtless view of prevailing forces; he must contemplate them as a
connected whole and try to understand them.
Through the crack of the door one has a limited outlook; one looks outward
from within. Contemplation is subjectively limited. One tends to relate
everything to oneself and cannot put oneself in another's place and
understand his motives. This is appropriate for a good housewife. It is not
necessary for her to be conversant with the affairs of the world. But for a man
who must take active part in public life, such a narrow, egotistic way of
contemplating things is of course harmful.
This is the place of transition. We no longer look outward to receive pictures
that are more or less limited and confused, but direct out contemplation upon
ourselves in order to find a guideline for our decisions. This self-
contemplation means the overcoming of naive egotism in the person who
sees everything solely form his own standpoint. He begins to reflect and in
this way acquires objectivity. However, self-knowledge does not mean
preoccupation with one's own thoughts; rather, it means concern about the
effects one creates. It is only the effects our lives produce that give us the
right to judge whether what we have done means progress or regression.
This describes a man who understands the secrets by which a kingdom can be
made to flourish. Such a man must be given an authoritative position, in
which he can exert influence. He should be, so to speak, a guest-that is, he
should be honored and act independently, and should not be used as a tool.
A man in an authoritative position to whom others look up must always be
ready for self-examination. The right sort of self-examination, however,
consists not in idle brooding over oneself but in examining the effects one
produces. Only when these effects are good, and when one's influence on
others is good, will the contemplation of one's own life bring the
satisfaction of knowing oneself to be free of mistakes.
While the preceding line represents a man who contemplates himself, here
in the highest place everything that is personal, related to the ego, is excluded.
The picture is that of a sage who stands outside the affairs of the world.
Liberated from his ego, he contemplates the laws of life and so realizes that
knowing how to become free of blame is the highest good.
Barbara Hejslip interpretation
You should be to ready to probable and unexpected troubles. Try to consider and analyse a state of affairs easy and judiciously. Probably, that to you it will be necessary to replace a residence and work. Try anything important to not miss, you need to be now especially attentive. You can receive the help therefrom, whence least wait, for this purpose it is necessary to think over carefully only all the actions. Your desires will be executed, maybe, not so quickly as you would like. It is necessary for you to consider opportunities of realization of your plans well. Well, and if your business will go successfully do not forget to assist another.
21. Gnawing Bite (shì kè). Biting Through
Nothing in life is unique. Be able to see the essence of events and do not try to fight the forced inactivity. When idle the external, internal is active. The more active and indiscriminate actions are, the more firmly teeth are tightened; you will be bogged down in a situation and incur losses.
Inital text of I Ching
Biting Through has success. It is favorable to let justice be administered.
Thunder and lightning:
The image of Biting Through. Thus the kings of former times made firm the laws through clearly defined penalties.
- His feet are fastened in the stocks, so that his toes disappear. No blame.
- Bites through tender meat, so that his nose disappears. No blame.
- Bites on old dried meat and strikes on something poisonous. Slight humiliation. No blame.
- Bites on dried gristly meat. Receives metal arrows. It furthers one to be mindful of difficulties and to be persevering. Good fortune.
- Bites on dried lean meat. Receives yellow gold. Perseveringly aware of danger. No blame.
- His neck is fastened in the wooden cangue, so that his ears disappear. Misfortune.
Something tends to destroy the harmony. Clenched teeth have a dual character: on the one hand - the restoration of unity (with force), on the other - the destruction of 'grinding'. Do not fear. It is good time to take advantage of strife. Prejudices are destroyed, thoughts converge. But there is no freedom of action. Cases are suspended. If you make a mistake at work - you will fall into a millstone: finally lose your freedom, or will suffer significant damage, experience pain.
This hexagram represents an open mouth (cf. hexagram 27) with an
obstruction (in the fourth place) between the teeth. As a result the lips cannot
meet. To bring them together one must bite energetically through the
obstacle. Since the hexagram is made up of the trigrams for thunder and for
lightning, it indicates how obstacles are forcibly removed in nature.
Energetic biting through overcomes the obstacle that prevents joining of the
lips; the storm with its thunder and lightning overcomes the disturbing
tension in nature. Recourse to law and penalties overcomes the disturbances
of harmonious social life caused by criminals and slanderers. The theme of
this hexagram is a criminal lawsuit, in contradistinction to that of Sung,
CONFLICT, which refers to civil suits.
When an obstacle to union arises, energetic biting through brings success.
This is true in all situations. Whenever unity cannot be established, the
obstruction is due to a talebearer and traitor who is interfering and blocking
the way. To prevent permanent injury, vigorous measures must be taken at
once. Deliberate obstruction of this sort does not vanish of its own accord.
Judgment and punishment are required to deter or obviate it.
However, it is important to proceed in the right way. The hexagram
combines Li, clarity, and Chên, excitement. Li is yielding, Chên is hard.
Unqualified hardness and excitement would be too violent in meting out
punishment; unqualified clarity and gentleness would be too weak. The two
together create the just measure. It is of moment that the man who makes
the decisions (represented by the fifth line) is gentle by nature, while he
commands respect by his conduct in his position.
Penalties are the individual applications of the law. The laws
specify the penalties. Clarity prevails when mild and severe
penalties are differentiated, according to the nature of the crimes.
This is symbolized by the clarity of lighting. The law is strengthened
by a just application of penalties. This is symbolized by the terror
of thunder. This clarity and severity have the effect of instilling
respect; it is not that the penalties are ends in themselves.
The obstructions in the social life of man increase when there is a
lack of clarity in the penal codes and slackness in executing them.
The only to strengthen the law is to make it clear and make penalties
certain and swift.
If a sentence is imposed the first time a man attempts to do wrong, the
penalty is a mild one. Only the toes are put in the stocks. This prevents him
from sinning further and thus he becomes free of blame. It is a warning to
halt in time on the path of evil.
It is easy to discriminate between right and wrong in this case;
it is like biting through tender meat. But one encounters a
hardened sinner, and, aroused by anger, one goes a little too
far. The disappearance of the nose in the course of the bite
signifies that indignation blots out finer sensibility. However,
there is no great harm in this, because the penalty as such is
Punishment is to be carried out by someone who lacks the power and
authority to do so. Therefore the culprits do not submit. The matter at issue
is an old one-as symbolized by salted game-and in dealing with it difficulties
arise. This old meat is spoiled: by taking up the problem the punisher arouses
poisonous hatred against himself, and n this way is put in a somewhat
humiliating position. But since punishment was required by the time, he
remains free of blame.
There are great obstacles to be overcome, powerful opponents are to be
punished. Though this is arduous, the effort succeeds. But it is necessary to
be hard as metal and straight as an arrow to surmount the difficulties. If one
knows these difficulties and remains persevering, he attains good fortune.
The difficult task is achieved in the end.
The case to be decided is indeed not easy but perfectly clear. Since we
naturally incline to leniency, we must make every effort to be like yellow
gold-that is, as true as gold and as impartial as yellow, the color of the middle
[the mean]. It is only by remaining conscious of the dangers growing out of
the responsibility we have assumed that we can avoid making mistakes.
In contrast to the first line, this line refers to a man who is incorrigible. His
punishment is the wooden cangue, and his ears disappear under it-that is to
say, he is deaf to warnings. This obstinacy leads to misfortune.
Barbara Hejslip interpretation
Something torments you, you feel unfortunate. Try to undertake any new business, and your business will go better, and gradually diligent work will lead you to the big success. You are inclined to consider yourselves as a victim of injustice. But if you will constantly think of how such could happen,-it will not help business. All we make weight of mistakes; obviously, in what you were mistaken also. But try to not lose courage and learn the necessary lesson of that has happened. It is not necessary to despair, as just now circumstances favour to performance of your desire. Gather; remain are quiet and judicious.
Richard Wilhelm's commentary