|There were "old" features in your gua (hexagram). It means that you have two hexagrams. The first one — is something that the Book tells you at the moment, the second is something it warns you about.
47. Confining (kùn). Oppression
Life - is itself a reason for joy, regardless of side it turns to you.
Inital text of I Ching
Oppression. Success. Perseverance. The great man brings about good fortune. No blame. When one has something to say, it is not believed.
There is no water in the lake:
The image of Exhaustion. Thus the superior man stakes his life on following his will.
- One sits oppressed under a bare tree and strays into a gloomy valley. For three years one sees nothing.
- One is oppressed while at meat and drink. The man with the scarlet knee bands is just coming. It furthers one to offer sacrifice. To set forth brings misfortune. No blame.
- A man permits himself to be oppressed by stone, and leans on thorns and thistles. He enters his house and does not see his wife. Misfortune.
- He comes very quietly, oppressed in a golden carriage. Humiliation, but the end is reached.
- His nose and feet are cut off. Oppression at the hands of the man with the purple knee bands. Joy comes softly. It furthers one to make offerings and libations.
- He is oppressed by creeping vines. He moves uncertainly and says, "Movement brings remorse". If one feels remorse over this and makes a start, good fortune comes.
There comes a time of decline. Your forces are exhausted, and now there is no desire to get down to business and move forward. Look for support in your soul. Beware of losing direction and spend energy on unnecessary worries and complaints, fear of losing freedom. Strive for solitude, focus on the inner life. Appreciate the time of enforced idleness - it is the best time to sort out internal problems, to find peace of mind and accumulate energy. There are rumors, idle gossip - do not worry, they are groundless. Pay attention to your health.
The lake is above, water below; the lake is empty, dried up. Exhaustion is
expressed in yet another way: at the top, a dark line is holding down two light
line; below, a light line is hemmed in between two dark ones. The upper
trigram belongs to the principle of darkness, the lower to the principle of
light. Thus everywhere superior men are oppressed and held in restraint by
Times of adversity are the reverse of times of success, but they can lead to
success if they; befall the right man. When a strong man meets with
adversity, he remains cheerful despite all danger, and this cheerfulness is the
source of later successes; it is that stability which is stronger than fate. He who
lets his spirit be broken by exhaustion certainly has no success. But if
adversity only bends a man, it creates in him a power to react that is bound in
time to manifest itself. No inferior man is capable of this. Only the great
man brings about goof fortune and remains blameless. It is true that for the
time being outward influence is denied him, because his words have no
effect. Therefore in times of adversity it is important to be strong within and
sparing of words.
When the water has flowed out below, the lake must dry up and become
exhausted. That is fate. This symbolizes an adverse fate in human life. In
such times there is nothing a man can do but acquiesce in his fate and remain
true to himself. This concerns the deepest stratum of his being, for this alone
is superior to all external fate.
When adversity befalls a man, it is important above all things for him to be
strong and to overcome the trouble inwardly. If he is weak, the trouble
overwhelms him. Instead of proceeding on his way, he remains sitting under
a bare tree and falls ever more deeply into gloom and melancholy. This
makes the situation only more and more hopeless. Such an attitude comes
from an inner delusion that he must by all means overcome.
This pictures a state of inner oppression. Externally, all is well, one has meat
and drink. But one is exhausted by the commonplaces of life, and there
seems to be no way of escape. Then help comes from a high place. A prince-
in ancient China princes wore scarlet knee bands- is in search of able helpers.
But there are still obstructions to be overcome. Therefore it is important to
meet these obstructions in the visible realm by offerings and prayer. To set
forth without being prepared would be disastrous, though not morally wrong.
Here a disagreeable situation must be overcome by patience of spirit.
This shows a man who is restless and indecisive in times of adversity. At
first he wants to push ahead, then he encounters obstructions that, it is true,
mean oppression only when recklessly dealt with. He butts his head against a
wall and in consequence feels himself oppressed by the wall. Then he leans
on things that have in themselves no stability and that are merely a hazard
for him who leans on them. Thereupon he turns back irresolutely and
retires into his house, only to find, as a fresh disappointment, that his wife is
not there. Confucius says about this line:
If a man permits himself to be oppressed by something that ought not to
oppress him, his name will certainly be disgraced. If he leans on things upon
which one cannot lean, his life will certainly be endangered. For him who is
in disgrace and danger, the hour of death draws near; how can he then still
see his wife?
A well-to-do man sees the need of the lower classes and would like very
much to be of help. But instead of proceeding with speed and energy where
their is need, he begins in a hesitant and measured way. Then he encounters
obstructions. Powerful and wealthy acquaintances draw him into their circle;
he has to do as they do and cannot withdraw from them. Hence he finds
himself in great embarrassment. But the trouble is transitory. The original
strength of his nature offsets the mistake he has made, and the goal is
An individual who has the good of mankind at heart is oppressed from
above and below (this is the meaning of the cutting off of nose an defeat). He
finds no help among the people whose duty it would be to aid in the work of
rescue (ministers wore purple knee bands). But little by little, things take a
turn for the better. Until that time, he should turn to God, firm in his inner
composure, and pray and offer sacrifice for the general well-being.
A man is oppressed by bonds that can easily be broken. The distress is
drawing to an end. But he is still irresolute; he is still influenced by the
previous condition and fears that he may have cause for regret if he makes a
move. But as soon as he grasps the situation, changes this mental attitude,
and makes a firm decision, he masters the oppression.
Barbara Hejslip interpretation
Now for you time when it is not necessary to be accepted to something has come. This hexagram - one of four worst. It is necessary to wait some time, to put in order the ideas. Very probably, that the hand of the help to you will be stretched by the person whom you well know also which occupies high enough position; do not reject his advice. In fact now to you it is very poorly trusted in own forces. But circumstances will change for the better, and this period of bad luck will end.
19. Nearing (lín). Approach
Nothing is accidental in life. Learn to see the causal connection, to distinguish truth from error.
Inital text of I Ching
Approach has supreme success. Perseverance furthers. When the eighth month comes, there will be misfortune.
The earth above the lake:
The image of Approach. Thus the superior man is inexhaustible in his will to teach, and without limits in his tolerance and protection of the people.
- Joint approach. Perseverance brings good fortune.
- Joint approach. Good fortune. Everything furthers.
- Comfortable approach. Nothing that would further. If one is induced to grieve over it, one becomes free of blame.
- Complete approach. No blame.
- Wise approach. This is right for a great prince. Good fortune.
- Greathearted approach. Good fortune. No blame.
Past approaches the future. Survivals and obstacles are removed. You can look at the updated situation. Try to perceive the world on the whole, using all the senses. Correctly choose the direction, follow the higher destiny, or the motion will result in flight. Become closer to people, but be careful. Be human, do not give empty promises, and do not cheat others. Learn from the wise people. Learn to distinguish between the wisdom of senior from their mistakes.
The Chinese word lin has a range of meanings that is not exhausted by any
single word of another language. The ancient explanations in the Book of
Changes give as its first meaning, "becoming great." What becomes great are
the two strong lines growing into the hexagram from below; the light-giving
power expands with them. The meaning is then further extended to include
the concept of approach, especially the approach of what is lower. Finally the
meaning includes the attitude of condescension of a man in high position
toward the people, and in general the setting to work on affairs. This
hexagram is linked with the twelfth month (January-February), when after
the winter solstice, the light power begins to ascend again.
The hexagram as a whole points to a time of joyous, hopeful progress. Spring
is approaching. Joy and forbearance bring high and low nearer together.
Success is certain. But we must work with determination and perseverance
to make full use of the propitiousness of the time. And on thing more:
spring does not last forever. In the eighth month the aspects are reversed.
Then only two strong, light lines are left; these do not advance but are in
retreat (see next hexagram). We must take heed of this change in good time.
If we meet evil before it becomes reality-before it has even begun to stir-we
can master it.
The earth borders upon the lake from above. This symbolizes the approach
and condescension of the man of higher position to those beneath him. The
two parts of the image indicate what his attitude toward these people will be.
Just as the lake is inexhaustible in depth, so the sage is inexhaustible in his
readiness to teach mankind, and just as the earth is boundlessly wide,
sustaining and caring for all creatures on it, so the sage sustains and cares for
all people and excludes no part of humanity.
The good begins to prevail and to find response in influential circles. This in
turn is an incentive to men of ability. IT is well to join this upward trend, but
we must not let ourselves be carried away by the current of the time; we must
adhere perseveringly to what is right. This bring good fortune.
When the stimulus to approach comes from a high place, and when a man
has the inner strength and consistency that need no admonition, good
fortune will ensue. Nor need the future cause any concern. He is well aware
that everything earthly is transitory, and that a descent follows upon every
rise, but need not be confused by this universal law of fate. Everything serves
to further. Therefore he will travel the paths of life swiftly, honestly, and
Things are going well for a man: he achieves power and influence. But in
this lies the danger that he may relax, and confident of his position, allow the
easygoing, careless mood to show itself in his dealings with other people.
This would inevitably be harmful. But there is possibility of a change of
mood. If he regrets his mistaken attitude and feels the responsibility of an
influential position, he frees himself of faults.
While the three lower lines indicate rise to power and influence, the three
upper lines show the attitude of persons in higher position toward those of
lower rank for whom they procure influence. Here is shown the open-
minded approach of a person of high rank to a man of ability whom he draws
in to his own circle, regardless of class prejudice. This is very favorable.
A prince, or anyone in a leading position, must have the wisdom to attract to
himself people of ability who are expert in directing affairs. His wisdom
consists both in selecting the right people and in allowing those chosen to
have a free hand without interference from him. For only through such self-
restraint will he find the experts needed to satisfy all of his requirements.
A sage who has put the world behind him and who in spirit has already
withdrawn from life may, under certain circumstances, decide to return once
more to the here and now and to approach other men. This means great
good fortune for the men whom he teaches and helps. And for him this great
hearted humbling of himself is blameless.
Barbara Hejslip interpretation
You are expected with success in everything, for what you have undertaken now. And in the further circumstances that will be more favorable for you, than you will achieve greater success. Time when successes in the most different affairs are probable is necessary. Be resolute in achievement of the purpose, but do not forget and about friends: do not cause envy or insult, be cautious and circumspect. Obviously, you will be forced to change the relation to one of relatives to you people whom you very well know.
Richard Wilhelm's commentary