|There were "old" features in your gua (hexagram). It means that you have two hexagrams. The first one — is something that the Book tells you at the moment, the second is something it warns you about.
47. Confining (kùn). Oppression
Life - is itself a reason for joy, regardless of side it turns to you.
Inital text of I Ching
Oppression. Success. Perseverance. The great man brings about good fortune. No blame. When one has something to say, it is not believed.
There is no water in the lake:
The image of Exhaustion. Thus the superior man stakes his life on following his will.
- One sits oppressed under a bare tree and strays into a gloomy valley. For three years one sees nothing.
- One is oppressed while at meat and drink. The man with the scarlet knee bands is just coming. It furthers one to offer sacrifice. To set forth brings misfortune. No blame.
- A man permits himself to be oppressed by stone, and leans on thorns and thistles. He enters his house and does not see his wife. Misfortune.
- He comes very quietly, oppressed in a golden carriage. Humiliation, but the end is reached.
- His nose and feet are cut off. Oppression at the hands of the man with the purple knee bands. Joy comes softly. It furthers one to make offerings and libations.
- He is oppressed by creeping vines. He moves uncertainly and says, "Movement brings remorse". If one feels remorse over this and makes a start, good fortune comes.
There comes a time of decline. Your forces are exhausted, and now there is no desire to get down to business and move forward. Look for support in your soul. Beware of losing direction and spend energy on unnecessary worries and complaints, fear of losing freedom. Strive for solitude, focus on the inner life. Appreciate the time of enforced idleness - it is the best time to sort out internal problems, to find peace of mind and accumulate energy. There are rumors, idle gossip - do not worry, they are groundless. Pay attention to your health.
The lake is above, water below; the lake is empty, dried up. Exhaustion is
expressed in yet another way: at the top, a dark line is holding down two light
line; below, a light line is hemmed in between two dark ones. The upper
trigram belongs to the principle of darkness, the lower to the principle of
light. Thus everywhere superior men are oppressed and held in restraint by
Times of adversity are the reverse of times of success, but they can lead to
success if they; befall the right man. When a strong man meets with
adversity, he remains cheerful despite all danger, and this cheerfulness is the
source of later successes; it is that stability which is stronger than fate. He who
lets his spirit be broken by exhaustion certainly has no success. But if
adversity only bends a man, it creates in him a power to react that is bound in
time to manifest itself. No inferior man is capable of this. Only the great
man brings about goof fortune and remains blameless. It is true that for the
time being outward influence is denied him, because his words have no
effect. Therefore in times of adversity it is important to be strong within and
sparing of words.
When the water has flowed out below, the lake must dry up and become
exhausted. That is fate. This symbolizes an adverse fate in human life. In
such times there is nothing a man can do but acquiesce in his fate and remain
true to himself. This concerns the deepest stratum of his being, for this alone
is superior to all external fate.
When adversity befalls a man, it is important above all things for him to be
strong and to overcome the trouble inwardly. If he is weak, the trouble
overwhelms him. Instead of proceeding on his way, he remains sitting under
a bare tree and falls ever more deeply into gloom and melancholy. This
makes the situation only more and more hopeless. Such an attitude comes
from an inner delusion that he must by all means overcome.
This pictures a state of inner oppression. Externally, all is well, one has meat
and drink. But one is exhausted by the commonplaces of life, and there
seems to be no way of escape. Then help comes from a high place. A prince-
in ancient China princes wore scarlet knee bands- is in search of able helpers.
But there are still obstructions to be overcome. Therefore it is important to
meet these obstructions in the visible realm by offerings and prayer. To set
forth without being prepared would be disastrous, though not morally wrong.
Here a disagreeable situation must be overcome by patience of spirit.
This shows a man who is restless and indecisive in times of adversity. At
first he wants to push ahead, then he encounters obstructions that, it is true,
mean oppression only when recklessly dealt with. He butts his head against a
wall and in consequence feels himself oppressed by the wall. Then he leans
on things that have in themselves no stability and that are merely a hazard
for him who leans on them. Thereupon he turns back irresolutely and
retires into his house, only to find, as a fresh disappointment, that his wife is
not there. Confucius says about this line:
If a man permits himself to be oppressed by something that ought not to
oppress him, his name will certainly be disgraced. If he leans on things upon
which one cannot lean, his life will certainly be endangered. For him who is
in disgrace and danger, the hour of death draws near; how can he then still
see his wife?
A well-to-do man sees the need of the lower classes and would like very
much to be of help. But instead of proceeding with speed and energy where
their is need, he begins in a hesitant and measured way. Then he encounters
obstructions. Powerful and wealthy acquaintances draw him into their circle;
he has to do as they do and cannot withdraw from them. Hence he finds
himself in great embarrassment. But the trouble is transitory. The original
strength of his nature offsets the mistake he has made, and the goal is
An individual who has the good of mankind at heart is oppressed from
above and below (this is the meaning of the cutting off of nose an defeat). He
finds no help among the people whose duty it would be to aid in the work of
rescue (ministers wore purple knee bands). But little by little, things take a
turn for the better. Until that time, he should turn to God, firm in his inner
composure, and pray and offer sacrifice for the general well-being.
A man is oppressed by bonds that can easily be broken. The distress is
drawing to an end. But he is still irresolute; he is still influenced by the
previous condition and fears that he may have cause for regret if he makes a
move. But as soon as he grasps the situation, changes this mental attitude,
and makes a firm decision, he masters the oppression.
Barbara Hejslip interpretation
Now for you time when it is not necessary to be accepted to something has come. This hexagram - one of four worst. It is necessary to wait some time, to put in order the ideas. Very probably, that the hand of the help to you will be stretched by the person whom you well know also which occupies high enough position; do not reject his advice. In fact now to you it is very poorly trusted in own forces. But circumstances will change for the better, and this period of bad luck will end.
42. Augmenting (yì). Increase
When fate favors, water can occur even in a dried source. But the grace of fate is the merit of man.
Inital text of I Ching
Increase. It furthers one to undertake something. It furthers one to cross the great water.
Wind and thunder: the image of Increase.
Thus the superior man: If he sees good, he imitates it; If he has faults, he rids himself of them.
- It furthers one to accomplish great deeds. Supreme good fortune. No blame.
- Six in the second place means: Someone does indeed increase him; Ten pairs of tortoises cannot oppose it. Constant perseverance brings good fortune. The king presents him before God. Good fortune.
- One is enriched through unfortunate events. No blame, if you are sincere and walk in the middle, and report with a seal to the prince.
- If you walk in the middle and report to the prince, he will follow. It furthers one to be used in the removal of the capital.
- If in truth you have a kind heart, ask not. Supreme good fortune. Truly, kindness will be recognized as your virtue.
- He brings increase to no one. Indeed, someone even strikes him. He does not keep his heart constantly steady. Misfortune.
Darkness replaces light - reducing the negative qualities leads to the augmentation of the good. Time favors you. Do not wait - to succeed you need to make good things. Soon you gain unexpected profit.
The idea of increase is expressed in the fact that the strong lowest line of the
upper trigram has sunk down and taken its place under the lower trigram.
This conception also expresses the fundamental idea on which the Book of
Changes is based. To rule truly is to serve.
A sacrifice of the higher element that produces an increase of the lower is
called an out-and-out increase: it indicates the spirit that alone has power to
help the world.
Sacrifice on the part of those above for the increase of those below fills the
people with a sense of joy and gratitude that is extremely valuable for the
flowering of the commonwealth. When people are thus devoted to their
leaders, undertakings are possible, and even difficult and dangerous
enterprises will succeed. Therefore in such times of progress and successful
development it is necessary to work and make the best use of time. This time
resembles that of the marriage of heaven and earth, when the earth partakes
of the creative power of heaven, forming and bringing forth living beings.
The time of INCREASE does not endure, therefore it must be utilized while it
While observing how thunder and wind increase and strengthen each other,
a man can not the way to self-increase and self-improvement. When he
discovers good in others, he should imitate it and thus make everything on
earth his own. If he perceives something bad in himself, let him rid himself
of it. In this way he becomes free of evil. This ethical change represents the
most important increase of personality.
If great help comes to a man from on high, this increased strength must be
used to achieve something great for which he might otherwise never have
found energy, or readiness to take responsibility. Great good fortune is
produced by selflessness, and in bringing about great good fortune, he
remains free of reproach.
A man brings about real increase by producing in himself the conditions for
it, that it, through receptivity to and love of the good. Thus the thing for
which he strives comes of itself, with the inevitability of natural law. Where
increase is thus in harmony with the highest laws of the universe, it cannot
be prevented by any constellation of accidents. But everything depends on his
not letting unexpected good fortune make him heedless; he must make it his
own through inner strength an steadfastness. Then he acquires meaning
before God and man, and can accomplish something for the good of the
A time of blessing and enrichment has such powerful effects that even events
ordinarily unfortunate must turn out to the advantage of those affected by
them. These persons become free of error, and by acting in harmony with
truth they gain such inner authority that they exert influence as if sanctioned
by the letter and seal.
It is important that there should be men who mediate between leaders and
followers. These should be disinterested people, especially in times of
increase, since the benefit is to spread from the leader to the people. Nothing
of this benefit should be held back in a selfish way; it should really reach those
for whom it is intended. This sort of intermediary, who also exercises a good
influence on the leader, is especially important in times when it is a matter of
great undertakings, decisive for the future and requiring the inner assent of
True kindness does not count upon nor ask about merit and gratitude but acts
from inner necessity. And such a truly kind heart finds itself rewarded in
being recognized, and thus the beneficent influence will spread unhindered.
The meaning here is that through renunciation those in high place should
bring increase to those below. By neglecting this duty and helping no one,
they in turn lose the furhtering influence of others and soon find themselves
alone. In this way they invite attacks. An attitude not permanently in
harmony with the demands of the time will necessarily bring misfortune
with it. Confucius says about this line:
The superior man sets his person at rest before he moves; he composes his
mind before he speaks; he makes his relations firm before he asks for
something. By attending to these three matters, the superior man gains
complete security. But if a man is brusque in his movements, others will not
cooperate. If he is agitated in his word, they awaken no echo in others. If he
asks for something without having fist established relations, it will not be
given to him. If no one is with him, those who would harm him draw near.
Barbara Hejslip interpretation
Given time to favorably outstanding persons. But also for other people it also is fruitful. It will be carried out conceived, it will be paid made. And you can assist another. The certain business charged to you will turn back personal benefit for you. To you also are going to make the favourable offer. Your desire will be executed, not without the help of the higher person. There is an opportunity essentially to correct for the financial business, and in the near future.
Richard Wilhelm's commentary