|There were "old" features in your gua (hexagram). It means that you have two hexagrams. The first one — is something that the Book tells you at the moment, the second is something it warns you about.
47. Confining (kùn). Oppression
Life - is itself a reason for joy, regardless of side it turns to you.
Inital text of I Ching
Oppression. Success. Perseverance. The great man brings about good fortune. No blame. When one has something to say, it is not believed.
There is no water in the lake:
The image of Exhaustion. Thus the superior man stakes his life on following his will.
- One sits oppressed under a bare tree and strays into a gloomy valley. For three years one sees nothing.
- One is oppressed while at meat and drink. The man with the scarlet knee bands is just coming. It furthers one to offer sacrifice. To set forth brings misfortune. No blame.
- A man permits himself to be oppressed by stone, and leans on thorns and thistles. He enters his house and does not see his wife. Misfortune.
- He comes very quietly, oppressed in a golden carriage. Humiliation, but the end is reached.
- His nose and feet are cut off. Oppression at the hands of the man with the purple knee bands. Joy comes softly. It furthers one to make offerings and libations.
- He is oppressed by creeping vines. He moves uncertainly and says, "Movement brings remorse". If one feels remorse over this and makes a start, good fortune comes.
There comes a time of decline. Your forces are exhausted, and now there is no desire to get down to business and move forward. Look for support in your soul. Beware of losing direction and spend energy on unnecessary worries and complaints, fear of losing freedom. Strive for solitude, focus on the inner life. Appreciate the time of enforced idleness - it is the best time to sort out internal problems, to find peace of mind and accumulate energy. There are rumors, idle gossip - do not worry, they are groundless. Pay attention to your health.
The lake is above, water below; the lake is empty, dried up. Exhaustion is
expressed in yet another way: at the top, a dark line is holding down two light
line; below, a light line is hemmed in between two dark ones. The upper
trigram belongs to the principle of darkness, the lower to the principle of
light. Thus everywhere superior men are oppressed and held in restraint by
Times of adversity are the reverse of times of success, but they can lead to
success if they; befall the right man. When a strong man meets with
adversity, he remains cheerful despite all danger, and this cheerfulness is the
source of later successes; it is that stability which is stronger than fate. He who
lets his spirit be broken by exhaustion certainly has no success. But if
adversity only bends a man, it creates in him a power to react that is bound in
time to manifest itself. No inferior man is capable of this. Only the great
man brings about goof fortune and remains blameless. It is true that for the
time being outward influence is denied him, because his words have no
effect. Therefore in times of adversity it is important to be strong within and
sparing of words.
When the water has flowed out below, the lake must dry up and become
exhausted. That is fate. This symbolizes an adverse fate in human life. In
such times there is nothing a man can do but acquiesce in his fate and remain
true to himself. This concerns the deepest stratum of his being, for this alone
is superior to all external fate.
When adversity befalls a man, it is important above all things for him to be
strong and to overcome the trouble inwardly. If he is weak, the trouble
overwhelms him. Instead of proceeding on his way, he remains sitting under
a bare tree and falls ever more deeply into gloom and melancholy. This
makes the situation only more and more hopeless. Such an attitude comes
from an inner delusion that he must by all means overcome.
This pictures a state of inner oppression. Externally, all is well, one has meat
and drink. But one is exhausted by the commonplaces of life, and there
seems to be no way of escape. Then help comes from a high place. A prince-
in ancient China princes wore scarlet knee bands- is in search of able helpers.
But there are still obstructions to be overcome. Therefore it is important to
meet these obstructions in the visible realm by offerings and prayer. To set
forth without being prepared would be disastrous, though not morally wrong.
Here a disagreeable situation must be overcome by patience of spirit.
This shows a man who is restless and indecisive in times of adversity. At
first he wants to push ahead, then he encounters obstructions that, it is true,
mean oppression only when recklessly dealt with. He butts his head against a
wall and in consequence feels himself oppressed by the wall. Then he leans
on things that have in themselves no stability and that are merely a hazard
for him who leans on them. Thereupon he turns back irresolutely and
retires into his house, only to find, as a fresh disappointment, that his wife is
not there. Confucius says about this line:
If a man permits himself to be oppressed by something that ought not to
oppress him, his name will certainly be disgraced. If he leans on things upon
which one cannot lean, his life will certainly be endangered. For him who is
in disgrace and danger, the hour of death draws near; how can he then still
see his wife?
A well-to-do man sees the need of the lower classes and would like very
much to be of help. But instead of proceeding with speed and energy where
their is need, he begins in a hesitant and measured way. Then he encounters
obstructions. Powerful and wealthy acquaintances draw him into their circle;
he has to do as they do and cannot withdraw from them. Hence he finds
himself in great embarrassment. But the trouble is transitory. The original
strength of his nature offsets the mistake he has made, and the goal is
An individual who has the good of mankind at heart is oppressed from
above and below (this is the meaning of the cutting off of nose an defeat). He
finds no help among the people whose duty it would be to aid in the work of
rescue (ministers wore purple knee bands). But little by little, things take a
turn for the better. Until that time, he should turn to God, firm in his inner
composure, and pray and offer sacrifice for the general well-being.
A man is oppressed by bonds that can easily be broken. The distress is
drawing to an end. But he is still irresolute; he is still influenced by the
previous condition and fears that he may have cause for regret if he makes a
move. But as soon as he grasps the situation, changes this mental attitude,
and makes a firm decision, he masters the oppression.
Barbara Hejslip interpretation
Now for you time when it is not necessary to be accepted to something has come. This hexagram - one of four worst. It is necessary to wait some time, to put in order the ideas. Very probably, that the hand of the help to you will be stretched by the person whom you well know also which occupies high enough position; do not reject his advice. In fact now to you it is very poorly trusted in own forces. But circumstances will change for the better, and this period of bad luck will end.
61. Centre Confirming (zhōng fú). Inner Truth
Grain of faith moves mountains and work wonders. Act in accordance with your beliefs and do not palter with truth.
Inital text of I Ching
Inner Truth. Pigs and fishes. Good fortune. It furthers one to cross the great water. Perseverance furthers.
Wind over lake:
The image of Inner Truth. Thus the superior man discusses criminal cases in order to delay executions.
- Being prepared brings good fortune. If there are secret designs, it is disquieting.
- A crane calling in the shade. Its young answers it. I have a good goblet. I will share it with you.
- He finds a comrade. Now he beats the drum, now he stops. Now he sobs, now he sings.
- The moon nearly at the full. The team horse goes astray. No blame.
- He possesses truth, which links together. No blame.
- Cockcrow penetrating to heaven. Perseverance brings misfortune.
It is time of action based on the need of your heart. Self-control leads to success of even those who have limited opportunities and capabilities. Something started not very well will results in good. «Somebody who cries will sing» (Happy ending of lawsuit is possible). If acting contrary to internal truth, the opposite will happen. «Who sings will cry». Unpleasant events are possible but not significant.
The wind blows over the lake and stirs the surface of the water. Thus visible
effects of the invisible manifest themselves. The hexagram consists of firm
lines above and below, while it is open in the center. This indicates a heart
free of prejudices and therefore open to truth. On the other hand, each of the
two trigrams has a firm line in the middle; this indicates the force of inner
truth in the influences they present.
The attributes of the two trigrams are: above, gentleness, forbearance
toward inferiors; below, joyousness in obeying superiors. Such conditions
create the basis of a mutual confidence that makes achievements possible.
The character of fu ("truth") is actually the picture of a bird's foot over a
fledgling. It suggests the idea of brooding. An egg is hollow. The light-giving
power must work to quicken it from outside, but there must be a germ of life
within, if life is to be awakened. Far-reaching speculations can be linked with
Pigs and fishes are the least intelligent of all animals and therefore the most
difficult to influence. The force of inner truth must grow great indeed before
its influence can extend to such creatures. In dealing with persons as
intractable and as difficult to influence as a pig or a fish, the whole secret of
success depends on finding the right way of approach. One must first rid
oneself of all prejudice and, so to speak, let the psyche of the other person act
on one without restraint. Then one will establish contact with him,
understand and gain power over him. When a door has thus been opened,
the force of one's personality will influence him. If in this way one finds no
obstacles insurmountable, one can undertake even the most dangerous
things, such as crossing the great water, and succeed.
But it is important to understand upon what the force inner truth depends.
This force is not identical with simple intimacy or a secret bond. Close ties
may exist also among thieves; it is true that such a bond acts as a force but,
since it is not invincible, it does not bring good fortune. All association on
the basis of common interests holds only up to a certain point. Where the
community of interest ceases, the holding together ceases also, and the closest
friendship often changes into hate. Only when the bond is based on what is
right, on steadfastness, will it remain so firm that it triumphs over
Wind stirs water by penetrating it. Thus the superior man, when obliged to
judge the mistakes of men, tries to penetrate their minds with understanding,
in order to gain a sympathetic appreciation of the circumstances. In ancient
China, the entire administration of justice was guided by this principle. A
deep understanding that knows how to pardon was considered the highest
form of justice. This system was not without success, for its aim was to make
so strong a moral impression that there was no reason to fear abuse of such
mildness. For it sprang not from weakness but from a superior clarity.
The force of inner truth depends chiefly on inner stability and preparedness.
From this state of mind springs the correct attitude toward the outer world.
But if a man should try to cultivate secret relationships of a special sort, it
would deprive him of his inner independence. The more reliance he places
on the support of others, the more uneasy and anxious he will become as to
whether these secret ties are really tenable. In this way inner peace and the
force of inner truth are lost.
This refers to the involuntary influence of a man's inner being upon persons
of kindred spirit. The crane need not show itself on a high hill. It may be
quite hidden when it sounds its call; yet its young will hear its not, will
recognize it and give answer. Where there is a joyous mood, there a comrade
will appear to share a glass of wine.
This is the echo awakened in men through spiritual attraction. Whenever
a feeling is voiced with truth and frankness, whenever a deed is the clear
expression of sentiment, a mysterious and far-reaching influence is exerted.
At first it acts on those who are inwardly receptive. But the circle grows larger
and larger. The root of all influence lies in one's own inner being: given true
and vigorous expression in word and deed, its effect is great. The effect is but
the reflection of something that emanates from one's own heart. Any
deliberate intention of an effect would only destroy the possibility of
producing it. Confucius says about this line:
The superior man abides in his room. If his words are well spoken, he meets
with assent at a distance of more than a thousand miles. How much more
then from near by! If the superior man abides in his room and his words are
not well spoken, he meets with contradiction at a distance of more than a
thousand miles. How much more then from near by! Words go forth from
one's own person and exert their influence on men. Deeds are born close at
hand and become visible far away. Words and deeds are the hinge and
bowspring of the superior man. As hinge and bowspring move, they bring
honor or disgrace. Through words and deeds the superior man moves
heaven and earth . Must one not, then, be cautious?
Here the source of a man's strength lies not in himself but in his relation to
other people. No matter how close to them he may be, if his center of gravity
depends on them, he is inevitably tossed to and fro between joy and sorrow.
Rejoicing to high heaven, then sad unto death-this is the fate of those who
depend upon an inner accord with other persons whom they love. Here we
have only the statement of the law that this is so. Whether this condition is
felt to be an affliction of the supreme happiness of love, is left to the
subjective verdict of the person concerned.
To intensify the power of inner truth, a man must always turn to his
superior, from whom he can receive enlightenment as the moon receives
light form the sun. However, this requires a certain humility, like that of the
moon when it is not yet quite full. At the moment when the moon becomes
full and stands directly opposite the sun, it begins to wane. Just as on the one
hand we must be humble and reverent when face to face with the source of
enlightenment, so likewise must we on the other renounce factionalism
among men. Only be pursuing one's course like a horse that goes straight
ahead without looking sidewise at its mate, can one retain the inner freedom
that helps one onward.
This describes the ruler who holds all elements together by the power of his
personality. Only when the strength of his character is so ample that he can
influence all who are subject to him, is he as he needs to be. The power of
suggestion must emanate from the ruler. It will firmly knit together and
unite all his adherents. Without this central force, all external unity is only
deception and breaks down at the decisive moment.
The cock is dependable. It crows at dawn. But it cannot itself fly to heaven. It
just crows. A man may count on mere words to awaken faith. This may
succeed now and then, but if persisted in, it will have bad consequences.
Barbara Hejslip interpretation
Now it is necessary for you to work in cooperation with others but in any way to one. You are inclined to overestimate the mental faculties; be careful of it, differently can become simply unrestrained and haughty arrogent man. And it can prevent to realization of your plans. Try to be more modest. Your desires will be executed only in the event that they are reasonable and fair. In the near future your opportunities and abilities on advantage will be estimated by the heads; it very much will assist you to promote on a way of success.
Richard Wilhelm's commentary