I Ching: Introduction by Richard Wilhelm
Rendered into English by Cary F. Baynes
The Book of Changes — I Ching in Chinese — is unquestionably
one of the most important books in the world's literature. Its
origin goes back to mythical antiquity, and it has occupied the
attention of the most eminent scholars of China down to the present
day. Nearly all that is greatest and most significant in the
three thousand years of Chinese cultural history has either taken
its inspiration from this book, or has exerted an influence on
the interpretation of its text. Therefore it may safely be said
that the seasoned wisdom of thousands of years has gone into the
making of the I Ching. Small wonder then that both of
the two branches of Chinese philosophy, Confucianism and Taoism,
have their common roots here. The book sheds new light on many
a secret hidden in the often puzzling modes of thought of that
mysterious sage, Lao-tse, and of his pupils, as well as on many
ideas that appear in the Confucian tradition as axioms, accepted
without further examination.
Indeed, not only the philosophy of China but its science and statecraft
as well have never ceased to draw from the spring of wisdom in
the I Ching, and it is not surprising that this alone,
among all the Confucian classics, escaped the great burning of
the books under Ch'in Shih Huang Ti.1. Even the common-places
of everyday life in China are saturated with its influence. In
going through the streets of a Chinese city, one will find, here
and there at a street corner, a fortune teller sitting behind
a neatly covered table, brush and tablet at hand, ready to draw
from the ancient book of wisdom pertinent counsel and information
on life's minor perplexities. Not only that, but the very signboards
adorning the houses — perpendicular wooden panels done in gold
on black lacquer — are covered with inscriptions whose flowery
language again and again recalls thoughts and quotations from
the I Ching. Even the policy makers of so modern a state
as Japan, distinguished for their astuteness, do not scorn to
refer to it for counsel in difficult situations.
In the course of time, owing to the great repute for wisdom attaching
to the Book of Changes, a large body of occult doctrines extraneous
to it — some of them possibly not even Chinese in origin — have
come to be connected with its teachings. The Ch'in and Han dynasties2. saw the beginning of a formalistic natural philosophy that sought
to embrace the entire world of thought in a system of number symbols.
Combining a rigorously consistent, dualistic yin-yang doctrine
with the doctrine of the "five stages of change" taken
from the Book of History,3. it forced Chinese philosophical thinking
more and more into a rigid formalization. Thus increasingly hairsplitting
cabalistic speculations came to envelop the Book of Changes in
a cloud of mystery, and by forcing everything of the past and
of the future into this system of numbers, created for the
I Ching the reputation of being a book of unfathomable profundity.
These speculations are also to blame for the fact that the seeds
of a free Chinese natural science, which undoubtedly existed at
the time of Mo Ti4. and his pupils, were killed, and replaced
by a sterile tradition of writing and reading books that was wholly
removed from experience. This is the reason why China has for
so long presented to Western eyes a picture of hopeless stagnation.
Yet we must not overlook the fact that apart from this mechanistic
number mysticism, a living stream of deep human wisdom was constantly
flowing through the channel of this book into everyday life, giving
to China's great civilization that ripeness of wisdom, distilled
through the ages, which we wistfully admire in the remnants of
this last truly autochthonous culture.
What is the Book of Changes actually? In order to arrive at an
understanding of the book and its teachings, we must first of
all boldly strip away the dense overgrowth of interpretations
that have read into it all sorts of extraneous ideas. This is
equally necessary whether we are dealing with the superstitions
and mysteries of old Chinese sorcerers or the no less superstitious
theories of modern European scholars who try to interpret all
historical cultures in terms of their experience of primitive
savages.5. We must hold here to the fundamental principle that
the Book of Changes is to be explained in the light of its own
content and of the era to which it belongs. With this the darkness
lightens perceptibly and we realize that this book, though a very
profound work, does not offer greater difficulties to our understanding
than any other book that has come down through a long history
from antiquity to our time.
1 ↑ 215 B.C.
2 ↑ Beginning in the last half of the third century B.C. and ending about A.D. 220.
3 ↑Sho Ching, the oldest of the Chinese classics. Modern scholarship has placed most of the records contained in the Shu Ching
near the first millennium B.C., though formerly a much greater age was ascribed to the earliest of them.
4 ↑ Fifth and fourth centuries B.C.
5 ↑ We might mention here, because of its oddity, the grotesque and amateurish attempt on the part of Rev. Canon McClatchie, M.A., to
apply the key of "comparative mythology" to the I Ching. His book was published in 1876 under the title, A Translation of the Confucian Yi King or the Clossic of Changes, with Notes and Appendix.